मुंगेर muṅgēr

‘Hammer Hill’ [Mudgagiri, Monghyr] City/District, Bihar (Bih)

Munger has more proposed derivations than you can shake a stick at. The suggestions are based on:

  1. the twin -edged hammer shape of the two rocky hillocks on which the fort was later built [Skt: mudga, ‘hammer’, ‘mallet’, ‘any hammer-like weapon’; and giri ‘hill’, ‘mountain’].
  2. the plants which grew here [Skt: mudga, ‘black gram’ [Vigna Mungo]; and giri ‘hill’, ‘mountain’].
  3. a commemoration or a feeling associated with the place [Skt: mod/mud, ‘joy’, ‘delight’, ‘rejoicing’; and  giri ‘hill’, ‘mountain’].
  4. a disciple of the Buddha called Maudgalya who settled here and converted the local merchants to Buddhism;
  5. an eastern city called Mod-Giri, according to the Mahabharata, which was the capital of a kingdom west of present day West Bengal. 

Munger Fort (Monghyr under the British) was built on two rocky hillocks on the southern shore of the Ganges river probably in the 13thC  during the Mamluk Dynasty.

Control by various Muslim powers followed (Khaljis, Tughlaqs, Lodis, Nawabs of Bengal, Mughals) until it was acquired by the British in the 18thC.

It is a riverfront fort and covers an area of one square kilometre with an exterior length along the walls of 4km.

The main gate Lal Darwaza [Urd: lāl, ‘red’; dar(waza), ‘gateway’, ‘door’] is the still intact while the rest of the fort is mostly in ruins.

For related place names see Indian Place names and Bihar place names.